Happy 53rd birthday! Revealing the history of Scania V8 development, how is the king of the road crowned step by step?


Happy 53rd birthday! Revealing the history of Scania V8 development, how is the king of the road crowned step by step?

If you are a car fan, what do you think of when you hear the V8 engine? Surging sound, abundant power, and linear acceleration feel, the V8 engine is known as the most balanced and popular engine type in the automotive field. The eight cylinders are divided into two groups on the left and right, four in each group. The 90-degree V-shaped angle arrangement has a very ideal ignition sequence and vibration characteristics. In addition, the number of cylinders is larger and the displacement is larger, which is full of confidence in power performance.

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Recently, Scania officially announced that it will bring the V8 engine to the Chinese market, and this is not the first time Scania has introduced the V8 engine to the country, but most of the car friends know little about the history and related technologies of this engine. , Today we will take stock of the development history of this V8 engine.

1969 The beginning of the Scania V8


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In Europe in the 1960s, truck engines were mainly in-line six-cylinder layouts, and in-line engines were relatively simple to manufacture. At that time, the mainstream 8-liter and 11-liter engines could output a maximum horsepower of about 250-280 horsepower, which was suitable for transportation of that year. Demand has been completely sufficient.

However, with the further growth of economic development, trucks need to pull more and heavier goods, such as wood, large items and other items. Scania foresaw this trend in advance and commissioned the diesel engine design department as early as 1962.

Bent Gardfeld, in charge, develops a more powerful engine.

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Bengt Galdfelt: Bengt Galdfelt (known as the father of the Scania V8 engine

After receiving the task, he said: We estimate that at least 350 horsepower is needed to make driving more comfortable and easier under such heavy load conditions. Due to the imperfect machining and manufacturing technology of the year, coupled with the appearance of European trucks. With the trend of flat-headed design, in order to achieve this level of power, it is obviously unreasonable to have an overly lengthy inline 8-cylinder. So Bent-Gardfield innovatively proposed

With the concept of V8 engine, after unremitting efforts, Scania developed the first generation V8 engine in 1969, the model is DS14, the displacement is 14.2 liters.

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DS14

V8 diesel engine with a maximum output of 345 hp

Maximum torque is 1500 Nm

This engine was first installed on the LB140 model in 1969

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Compared with the in-line engine, the overall structure of the V8 engine is more compact, and the 8-cylinder design not only makes the low-speed torque performance of the vehicle more powerful than the 6-cylinder, but also is more friendly to the components of the transmission system such as gearboxes,cabin tilt pump and axles. , it is not easy to cause excessive wear. The maximum output of this engine reached 350 horsepower and the maximum torque was 1500 Nm, which was unimaginable for the auto industry at that time, and Scania also topped the European truck horsepower list for the first time.

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The unique V-valve cover of the Scania V8 engine continues to this day

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Saab cars and aircraft products dance with Scania trucks and passenger cars

In the same year, Scania announced the merger with SAAB (Saab), a famous car manufacturer, and exhibited this V8 engine at the IAA auto show in Germany. Here is a digression. At that time, my country's trucks were mainly imitation Soviet-made and self-made. , the maximum power of the six-cylinder engine of the Jiefang CA140 truck was only 90 horsepower.

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It is worth mentioning that Scania has adopted the modular design concept since the 1980s, which allows the integration of the number of parts cabin tilt cylinder of the whole series of trucks to be as high as 70%, and the average production time of the vehicle has dropped by about 30%. Improve truck delivery timeliness and actual production efficiency.

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Scania has produced a total of 170,000 14-liter V8 engines so far, and in the 1980s, the turbo was first equipped with a cooling system, and the power was further upgraded. Its power and durability have been recognized by the European market, helping Scania quickly establish a brand image, and Scania launched a well-received customized service in 1981, allowing customers to customize their own according to actual needs. truck.

Euro III emission standards hit, 16-liter V8 can also be very environmentally friendly      

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The V8 engine has been popular in the global market since its birth, especially in the North American continent. Ford, GM and other companies even installed V8 engines with a displacement of about 7.4 liters for civilian cars and sports cars. However, with the oil crisis and environmental protection issues With each passing day, Scania’s engineers found that although blindly expanding the cylinder, increasing the fuel injection amount and the compression ratio can achieve a breakthrough in power, it is difficult to take into account the problems of emissions and environmental protection. 

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14-liter V8 from the 1990s

As a result, the DS14 14-liter V8 engine, which has dominated the European truck market for 31 years, had to regretfully withdraw from the stage of history. During the 1990s and 1900s, the power of this 14-liter engine could cover the range of 480-580 horsepower, and the torque reached At 2,700 Nm, the figure is almost double what it was when it was launched in 1969, but the wheels of history are always moving forward, and Scania also started to develop a new V8 engine in the late 1990s.

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72-degree angle V8 prototype

Scania engineers had planned to break with tradition and develop a new V8 model with a 72-degree angle. 12 prototypes were built, but none of them lived up to expectations. And that man, Bent Gardfeldt stood up again. He pointed out that the layout of the V8 engine with an included angle of 72 degrees was too complicated, and the reliability was not good, especially in the design of the crankshaft. Ya adopted his opinion and continued the design concept of the 90-degree angle.

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15.6-liter 90-degree angle V8 engine developed later

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At the beginning of 2004, Scania began to adopt a new naming method, the horsepower will be directly marked in the vehicle model

Although the improvement process was very difficult, and there were also internal voices of opposition, Scania engineers finally overcame many difficulties and launched the newly developed D16 15.6-liter V8 engine in 2000. The output power of this engine covers 500-620 Horsepower segment, and the maximum torque reached 3000 Nm.

During 2005, Scania and Cummins Group jointly developed the XPI new high-pressure common rail fuel injection system. The introduction of this technology laid the foundation for Scania's V8 engine to easily break through the 700-horsepower mark in the future.

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The first Scania retarder

At the same time, in 1993, Scania also launched a self-developed hydraulic retarder. Scania's technology has been around for nearly 30 years. It can be said that it not only captured the hearts of many card fans, but also made Scania Trucks just got safer. At present, the most contacted Scania car friends in China is the R4100D hydraulic retarder, whose braking torque is as high as 4100 Nm, and in the closed state, the impeller that rotates in the hydraulic cab tilt pump oil and provides braking torque will be connected with the gearbox on the gearbox. The transmission device is disengaged, reducing the kinetic energy loss caused by the meshing state of the impeller, and achieving the purpose of reducing fuel consumption.

2010 - The future opens a new era of V8

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Scania V8 tractor transports wind power equipment

Environmental protection issues are becoming more and more severe, not only the truck industry, but also the automotive industry are discussing, how far can the V8 engine go? In 2010, Scania's V8 was upgraded again, and the improved DC16 displacement reached 16.4 liters, which met the Euro V emission standard. With the help of the newly developed high-pressure oil cabin pump and large-size fuel injector, its maximum output power also increased. At 730 horsepower and a peak torque of 3500 Nm, it once again set a new European tractor horsepower record.

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Since then, in order to further strengthen the power, Scania has begun to use the single-scroll VGT variable-section turbine technology (the 730 horsepower engine continues to use this technology), and the later improved three 520 horsepower, 580 horsepower and the introduction of The domestic 650-horsepower DC16 engine replaces this technology with an FGT twin-scroll turbo, which Scania calls the rotary twin-scroll fixed geometry turbocharger technology.

To put it simply, this turbo has two exhaust gas collectors for air supply. FGT uses exhaust gas more efficiently, and at the same time, the weight is lighter than VGT structure, which also makes the latest DC16 engine, the fuel economy and power response of the last one. steps.

And in the twelve years from 2010 to 2022, Scania realized that in order to continuously improve the efficiency of the V8 engine, reducing the heat and friction generated between the components is a way, so Scania decided on the DC16. The engine's cylinder heads, pistons, piston rods, crankcases, and bearings have been continuously updated and repeatedly machined to achieve better airtightness and reduce thermal energy generated by more friction. The newly designed modular V8 cylinder head has been able to withstand millions of thermal and mechanical stresses.

Since the latest engine has to meet the emission standards of Euro VI and China VI, the Scania 650-horsepower V8 engine introduced in China adopts a high-efficiency SCR route, but the huge and unbalanced heat generated by the V8 engine will be affected under special operating conditions. Affect the normal working efficiency of SCR. Engineers have developed a special camshaft that keeps the valves open longer during the air compression phase, and the engine gets less air in the cylinders, helping the engine maintain a high, concentrated operating temperature, which helps for the normal operation of the SCR system.

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As a digression, Audi's 3.0T V6 EA839 gasoline engine currently uses twin-scroll FGT turbo technology. Since Scania became a wholly-owned subsidiary of Volkswagen in 2014, Scania has not only expanded its own products cabin tilt cylijnder. It has improved marketing efforts and update speed, and has also learned from each other in technology and shared technology in an all-round way. Having said that, the 770 horsepower output of today's DC16V8 engine has also surpassed the 750 horsepower output of Volvo FH16, returning to the top of the European mass-produced tractor.

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In the future, Scania is working hard to promote the electrification process. Its L-series models are also flourishing in the field of hybrid and new energy. Now some of Scania's V8 engines can even use biodiesel and HVO vegetable oil as the drive. energy. Although the horsepower continues to rise, the emission standards have never held back the Scania V8. Different from the concept of many car companies, Scania believes that the V8 engine can become a pioneer in the field of sustainable transportation.

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Japanese driver uses VR technology to control the boom to retrieve wood in Scania's cab